Methods of Brain Stimulation

NEW Course, Fall 2021 date TBD

Invasive and non-invasive methods of human brain stimulation have expanded greatly in recent years.  Methods that do not involve surgical intervention include Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), Transcranial Ultrasound Stimulation (TUS), Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (TDCS), and Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation(TACS).  The general term for methods that require surgical procedures is Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) and these procedures are now used in treating a host of disorders.

These methods are important in their own right.  But their usefulness for research and clinical diagnosis and treatments can be increased via combination with other human brain imaging modalities.  The Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging—as a leading developer of these technologies and their integration with others—is well-suited to giving aspiring researchers and practitioners in this field a solid foundation with the latest tools.

The present program is intended for researchers and clinicians, but it is not a Continuing Medical Education (CME) program.  Rather it is intended to supply researchers and clinicians in this area with an in-depth “running start” on a wide variety of technologies.  Content will include the basic mechanisms of stimulation; detailed understanding of data analysis techniques; safety and IRB considerations; pitfalls and cautions with respect to acquisition and interpretation of the data; and integration with other modalities.

The current plan is to make the first day of this intense workshop suitable for the actively interested public via a separate registration.


Faculty     (more to be added)


Aapo Nummenmaa, Ph.D.  [Course Director] Dr. Nummenmaa, is an Assistant Professor of Radiology at Harvard Medical School and the Director of the MGH Martinos Center TMS Core Laboratory. He received his M.Sc. degree in Theoretical Physics (Mathematics) from University of Turku and Ph.D. in Cognitive Technology (Computational Engineering) from Helsinki University of Technology (currently a part of Aalto University) with his thesis considering Bayesian approach to the neuromagnetic source localization problem. Dr. Nummenmaa joined the Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging as a Post-Doctoral Fellow in 2008 and he received further training in multimodal imaging using MEG/EEG and fMRI, acquisition and analysis of diffusion MRI, and computational modeling of TMS. Dr. Nummenmaa joined the Martinos Center Faculty in 2014 and has since worked on microstructure mapping using diffusion MRI, high-performance computational modeling of TMS/MEG/EEG as well developing integrated multichannel systems for combining TMS with MEG/EEG and MRI. More information about Dr. Nummenmaa and the TMS Lab at the Martinos Center is available at  TMS Lab at Martinos